Electrochemical Technology

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium is the main element of this type of battery, since lithium ions are carried from cathode to anode (charging) through a separator and vice versa (discharging). Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries can be split into different types based on the other elements, mainly corresponding to the cathode’s chemical composition.

Chemical Name Material Abbreviation Applications
Lithium Cobalt Oxide LiCoO2 LCO Cell phones, laptops, cameras
Lithium Manganese Oxide LiMn2O4 LMO Power tools, EVs, medical, hobbyist
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide LiNiMnCo02 NMC Power tools, EVs, medical, hobbyist
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide LiNiCoAlO2 NCA EVs, grid storage
Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4 LFP Power tools, EVs, medical, hobbyist
Lithium Titanate Oxide Li4Ti5O12 LTO EVs, grid storage

Each different type has different advantages, such as:

    • LCO has an important specific energy;
    • LMO has a high specific power;
    • NCA and NMC are the cheapest Li-Ion batteries and the most stable from a thermal standpoint;
    • LFP has a flat OCV curve but low capacity and high self-discharging rate; and
    • LTO has a long lifespan and fast charge

Chemistry Comparison

Physical Arrangement

Metal-Air Batteries

Metal-Air batteries combine the design features of both conventional batteries and fuel cells. They have large theoretical energy density (about 3~30 times higher than Lithium-Ion batteries) and are assembled from a metal anode and an air-breathing cathode with a proper electrolyte.

Currently it is still difficult to utilise Metal-Air batteries for land-based automotive use. However, we are always reviewing our selected technologies with a view to exploit new market opportunities, improve operating efficiencies and economies of scale.

Metal–air battery Energy, Wh/kg
(including oxygen)
Energy, Wh/kg
(excluding oxygen)
Open-Circuit Voltage, OCV
Aluminium–air 4300 8140 1.2
Germanium–air 1480 7850 1
Calcium–air 2990 4180 3.12
Iron–air 1431 2044 1.3
Lithium–air 5210 11140 2.91
Magnesium–air 2789 6462 2.93
Potassium–air 935 1700 2.48
Sodium–air 1677 2260 2.3
Silicon–air 4217 9036 1.6
Tin–air at 1000 K 860 6250 0.95
Zinc–air 1090 1350 1.65