Lithium is the main element of this type of battery, since lithium ions are carried from cathode to anode (charging) through a separator and vice versa (discharging). Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries can be split into different types based on the other elements, mainly corresponding to the cathode’s chemical composition.
|Lithium Cobalt Oxide||LiCoO2||LCO||Cell phones, laptops, cameras|
|Lithium Manganese Oxide||LiMn2O4||LMO||Power tools, EVs, medical, hobbyist|
|Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide||LiNiMnCo02||NMC||Power tools, EVs, medical, hobbyist|
|Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide||LiNiCoAlO2||NCA||EVs, grid storage|
|Lithium Iron Phosphate||LiFePO4||LFP||Power tools, EVs, medical, hobbyist|
|Lithium Titanate Oxide||Li4Ti5O12||LTO||EVs, grid storage|
Each different type has different advantages, such as:
- LCO has an important specific energy;
- LMO has a high specific power;
- NCA and NMC are the cheapest Li-Ion batteries and the most stable from a thermal standpoint;
- LFP has a flat OCV curve but low capacity and high self-discharging rate; and
- LTO has a long lifespan and fast charge
Metal-Air batteries combine the design features of both conventional batteries and fuel cells. They have large theoretical energy density (about 3~30 times higher than Lithium-Ion batteries) and are assembled from a metal anode and an air-breathing cathode with a proper electrolyte.
Currently it is still difficult to utilise Metal-Air batteries for land-based automotive use. However, we are always reviewing our selected technologies with a view to exploit new market opportunities, improve operating efficiencies and economies of scale.
|Metal–air battery||Energy, Wh/kg
|Open-Circuit Voltage, OCV|
|Tin–air at 1000 K||860||6250||0.95|